Excel INDIRECT Function

Excel INDIRECT Function


Create a reference from text

Return value 

A valid worksheet reference.


=INDIRECT (ref_text, [a1])


  • ref_text – A reference supplied as text.
  • a1 – [optional] A boolean to indicate A1 or R1C1-style reference. Default is TRUE = A1 style.

Usage notes 

Use INDIRECT to create or supply a reference in text form. Indirect is useful when you want to convert a text value into a valid cell reference.

The reference created by INDIRECT will not change even when cells, rows, or columns are inserted or deleted. For example, the formula =INDIRECT(“A1:A100”) will always refer to the first 100 rows of column A, even if rows in that range are deleted or inserted.

  • References created by INDIRECT are evaluated in real time and the content of the reference is displayed.
  • When ref_text is an external reference to another workbook, the workbook must be open.
  • a1 is optional. When omitted, a1 is TRUE = A1 style reference.
  • When a1 is set to FALSE, INDIRECT will created a an R1C1-style reference.

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